Literature Review on Foodborne Disease Hazards in Foods and Beverages in Ethiopia

This report details findings from two literature reviews: one on chemical and biological hazards detected in foods sold and consumed in Ethiopia (i.e., 97 articles published from 1990 to 2021), and one on beverages (i.e., 118 articles published from 2000 to 2021).

Regarding hazard occurrence in foods, 70% of included studies investigated the presence of bacterial hazards. In animal source foods, in particular the beef and dairy value chains, Salmonella spp., E. coli, and S. aureus were documented most frequently. Data are lacking on viral pathogens and parasites. While some studies found fresh vegetables to be highly contaminated with parasites and bacteria, comparatively little data was available for this commodity category. Only three studies reported on egg contamination.

Regarding hazard occurrence in beverages, 58% of included studies covered raw or pasteurized cow milk and camel milk, followed by water and fruit juices. More biological than chemical hazards were identified. Almost all (94%) biological hazards were bacteria, while a small portion were fungi and parasites.