Food Safety Stakeholder Mapping Report for Nigeria

Globally, unsafe food causes 600 million cases of foodborne diseases and 420,000 deaths yearly.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 33 million years of healthy lives are lost annually due to eating contaminated food worldwide. In Nigeria, the challenge of unsafe food is acute, with public health importance at the national, state and local government levels. Kebbi State has high levels of malnutrition, food insecurity and foodborne diseases despite being an agrarian State with diverse animal and plant food products. The Nigeria Demographic Health Survey 2018 reported that about 61% of children in the state suffer from malnutrition. Other studies have also reported high level of bacterial contamination of meat and meat products from markets in Kebbi state.

For this reason, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is funding the EatSafe -- Evidence and Action Towards Safe, Nutritious Food activity in Kebbi State. The overall goal of EatSafe is to enable lasting improvements in the safety of nutritious foods in informal markets by focusing on the consumer. The project will use an investigative approach to understand consumers’ and food vendors’ values, perceptions, and demand for safe, nutritious foods and the gendered roles that govern food safety related behaviors. Subsequently, this information will be channeled into designing a market-driven food safety intervention(s) that target consumers and vendors in informal markets in Kebbi State, Nigeria. The EatSafe project implementation is led by the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN), a Swiss foundation working to improve the consumption of safe, nutritious foods. The other partners are the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), a research center with expertise in food safety, and Pierce Mill Entertainment and Education, a firm specializing in social impact media for positive behavior change.

A stakeholder is defined here as any person, organization or social group that has a stake (vital interest) in the business of food and its safety, whether they are internal or external. Stakeholders can be categorized based on the functional involvements or their motive of interest such as being customers, employees, investors, suppliers and vendors, communities, and the government. Regardless of the cluster of functional involvements, stakeholders’ motives are driven by their gains or losses in their area of interest - in this case food safety. Motives can also reflect the nature of activities stakeholders engage in, be they informative, resource-based, expertise inclined or channeled towards the strategic formulation and implementation of policies. The stakeholders are major influencers for an improved food safety system in Nigeria.

The purpose of the food safety stakeholder mapping in Nigeria was to:

  • Identify and gauge stakeholders’ interests.
  • Categorize them by understanding what groups they belong to.
  • Find out whose interests they represent.
  • Determine the amount of power/influence they wield and/or possess. 

While the mapping scope included some stakeholders at national level, the main focus was to identify and map those in Kebbi State who have a stake or role to play in food safety and related areas, including agriculture, health, nutrition, food processing, research and academia, etc.

Additionally, some mapping was done in other states to capture some stakeholders whose activities have influence in Kebbi State but work in other States. The stakeholders list generated from the stakeholder mapping is a rich resource of stakeholders that EatSafe will engage with throughout the implementation of the project in Kebbi State. It will serve as a reference for citizen engagement and municipal roundtables for discussions on food safety, including design and implementation of interventions.

The stakeholder mapping methodology followed the three stages of stakeholder identification, analysis, and mapping. This ensured that the stakeholders on the list are those with a high potential to collaborate on the project. A questionnaire was designed to elicit relevant information through phone and virtual zoom calls with the stakeholders. The questionnaire was uploaded on google forms for stakeholders to complete. The questionnaire evaluated stakeholders’ roles, interest, influence, awareness about food safety and gender issues, among others. Based on the questionnaires, all stakeholders were grouped according to a grid that
ranked their level of interest and influence. The last stage was the mapping procedure, where stakeholders were listed and grouped according to their level of influence. The output of the mapping is the Stakeholders List.

This stakeholder mapping report is a sub-activity of the overall deliverable 1.7 titled "Nigeria Policy, Monitoring Systems Analysis and Stakeholder Mapping Report."



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