Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is rising rapidly, especially in urban areas in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). SSB consumption increases the risk for overweight and obesity, which are linked to a variety of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. One policy tool targeted at lessening the consumption of SSBs is a SSB tax, which increases the price of sugary drinks in a given area, which could be a single city, states or a country.
These manuals have been prepared for use by persons and organisations wishing to manufacture and supply complementary foods in different countries. The manuals have been specifically prepared for use in the countries of Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Rwanda and contain generic information that will be applicable irrespective of the country concerned but also contain specific information relating to the four aforementioned countries.
Vegetables for All (VfA) targets the whole vegetable chain from seed to stomach. In north- eastern Tanzania, the availability of vegetables is intrinsically linked to the dry and wet seasons causing fluctuations in access to nutritious vegetables. This problem is compounded by poor access to high quality seeds and other inputs and high levels of post-harvest loss which prevent vegetables reaching markets in the region.
In 2016, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) and its partners spotted a gap in postharvest loss interventions targeted to a) nutritious foods and b) working in the supply chain beyond the farm. The Postharvest Loss Alliance for Nutrition (PLAN) was launched in Nigeria.
Public food procurement refers to how governments purchase and provide food to defined populations. Institutional food procurement refers to food purchasing and provision by organisations like schools, hospitals, care homes, youth clubs, prisons, and workplaces. Local governments often manage public food procurement at these institutions, serving food to students, patients, employees, and their families.
Dietary intake data are required to design, monitor, and evaluate nutrition programmes and policies; however, current dietary assessment methods are complex, time consuming, and costly. Recently, GAIN developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) that can be used in coverage surveys to estimate the amount of fortified and biofortified foods consumed and their contributions to nutrient intakes.
In Nigeria, 40–50% of fresh fruits and vegetables are lost during crating, transportation, storage and processing. In the tomato sector, for instance, it is estimated that more than 40% of tomato production does not reach consumers. One of the main reasons for this massive waste is the lack of a temperature-controlled supply chain— known as cold chain which prevents fresh foods from spoiling between farm and market.
Food fortification is implemented to increase intakes of specific nutrients in the diet, but contributions of fortified foods to nutrient intakes are rarely quantified.
The number of people living in urban environments is growing at a rapid rate. Urban living fundamentally changes how people eat, as they are more reliant on needing paid employment and are more limited with growing their own food. This shift towards more urban living is also seeing big changes in food environments for most people, and what food is available, affordable and accessible to them.
Food systems are essential to food and nutrition security. They are also major drivers of economic, environmental, and social development and can be positive forces for urban development. This is critical, as increasing urbanisation of the global population is shifting the relative burden of poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition to cities. To keep up with this growth, greater urban infrastructure, are required.